In order to promote transparency and confidence in the educational materials of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS), AAOS maintains an up-to-date record of the disclosures of many business relationships of OrthoInfo contributors. AAOS makes this information available to the public to allow people to assess whether the information presented is as unbiased as possible. AAOS does not view the existence of these interests or relationships as decreasing the value of the contribution.

To assist readers in considering the contributor's disclosure information, AAOS provides these definitions:

Industry: For the purpose of AAOS Disclosure, industry includes commercial companies that design, manufacture and sell orthopaedic or medical devices, as well as pharmaceutical and biomaterial companies.

Royalties from inventions: An arrangement where industry pays an orthopaedic surgeon who invents an orthopaedic product or device in return for the right to develop, manufacture and sell that product or device. A royalty stream typically is paid after the orthopaedic surgeon has developed the invention or provided the services.

Speaker's Bureau/Paid Presentations: An arrangement where industry arranges, often for pay, for an orthopaedic surgeon to speak about that company's products or devices at a specific meeting or course.

Employee: An orthopaedic surgeon who is employed full or part time by industry must report this relationship to the AAOS Orthopaedic Disclosure Program.

Consultant: An arrangement where an orthopaedic surgeon, sometimes with pay, provides advice and input to a company regarding a particular product or device. If for pay, a consultant is typically paid in cash or in stock at the time the service is rendered.

Immediate Family: For the purposes of AAOS Disclosure, "immediate family" includes spouse, father, mother, son, daughter, brother, sister, domestic partner, and children of the domestic partner.

Research and Institutional Support: Orthopaedic surgeons who perform research — and their departments — are often supported by research grants or otherwise supported by the government, from foundations or by industry. The Principle Investigator (PI) is the individual judged by the funding organization to have the appropriate level of authority and responsibility to direct a research or other project or program supported by a grant. If the PI is an orthopaedic surgeon, he or she must disclose the funding organization to the AAOS Orthopaedic Disclosure Program.

Royalties or materials from publishers: If an orthopaedic surgeon has written or helped to write a published article or textbook and receives payment or some other material for these efforts, he or she must disclose the name of the publishing company to the AAOS Orthopaedic Disclosure Program.

To view contributor disclosures, please select the links below.